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第90屆 

頒授典禮

 (1975)

何中中

名譽文學博士

Mr. Chancellor, Mr. Pro-Chancellor, Mr. Vice-Chancellor, ladies and gentlemen:

It is great privilege for me to be asked to address this Congregation. My first duty is, of course, to render the warmest thanks to the University on behalf of all the honorary graduates, Mrs. Elizabeth Frankland Moore, Mr. Pao Yue Kong, The Hon. Szeto Wai, and myself, for all the honours just conferred upon us. All of my fellow graduates have made distinguished contributions in their own fields, and rendered outstanding services to the community, and therefore merit recognition. I alone should not have deserved consideration for this honour; it is one which all my seniors and colleagues in the field of education should share with me, for whatever little I have been able to achieve over the years has been achieved only with their guidance and unstinting support.

My father was a graduate of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and this makes me doubly glad that I too have become a member of its eminent successor today.

The aims of a university are to foster culture, to develop the talents of the young, to impart them expertise and skills and to prepare them for leadership in various spheres of activities in society. During the sixty-four years of its existence, this University has achieved these aims: its graduates have made substantial contributions to the life of the local community - cultural, economic and educational. They hold many of the most responsible posts in a wide range of departments of government and of other leading organizations of Hong Kong. And they are vital to its future.

In this age of knowledge explosion and of accelerated technological advancement - ironic, it may seem - man watches his moral and social well-being inversely retrogressing. Corruption, drug abuse, robbery and violence become regular features of daily life. People who have not yet become injured to this situation are conscious of the urgent need for a change, and of course they turn for direction to their leaders, who have enjoyed the benefit of a higher education.

However, in recent times education has laid overmuch emphasis on specialization and on technologies, to the extant that the search for the values of human life and the cultivation of good character, which require eternal vigilance, are slowly but surely being abandoned. If they do not possess a solid base in moral education from the primary and secondary schools, students who enter the University are likely to be solely occupied in mastering knowledge and skills in the hope of securing well-paid jobs and the material comforts which they bring. Many of them are unlikely to be able to understand the most pressing of the really serious social issues, and the concept of service becomes even more remote from those in this position. It is not, of course, a phenomenon unique to Hong Kong: it is a world trend.

There is now, in recent years, emerging a reaction among groups of concerned youths in some of the industrialized countries, where they have started to question, and even reject, a materialist, profit-conscious culture. It is beginning to be reported that the more popular of the elective courses in the universities of these countries are those concerned with the philosophical and moral issues; and this is an indication that more and more of the younger generation will be earnest in the search for a true meaning of life in this chaotic world.

Since Watergate, American educators have become more vocal about the role of moral education. Some basic questions are being raised: "To what extent are the primary and secondary schools and individual teachers responsible for inculcating moral behaviour in children?" "What is a value?" "What is a moral value?" "How can the schools help the young make a choice of action or reaction when they encounter a moral problem?" The desire to find answers to these questions is growing in the United States, a country which has prided itself on its scientific and technological excellence, and which has long buried "moral education" as being "backward" or "metaphysically irrelevant". Now faced with the crisis of moral bankruptcy, educationalists are busy exhuming these concepts, such as Professor Lipman who started the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children, with the object of studying the deep need of the young to arm themselves with the solution of moral problems. This is a wholly welcome trend. I make special reference to the United states, because as the paragon of success and affluence, that country has been an object of emulation for many developing countries, which are eager to follow blindly worshipping the material in the fond hope that that way lies the path to happiness. Many conscientious Americans today, realizing that America has set excessive store by material values, are now turning to the moral and ethical realms as the frame within which technology and material progress are contained and interpreted. This should give Hong Kong citizens much food for thought.

The traditional Chinese educational ideals are derived from the teachings of Confucius, and place equal emphasis on moral development and on the acquisition of knowledge. I give you two well-worn passages from 'The Great Learning', one of the classical 'Four Books' as translated by James Legge. "What the Great Learning teaches, is - to illustrate illustrious virtue to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence". This indicates that the ultimate goal of education is to acquire virtue, to put others into one's own place, and to achieve human excellence. My next quotation analyses the order of learning: "Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost of their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things". Herein we understand that the classics have clearly pointed out the processes and aims of learning: from learning we proceed to the second step of moral cultivation, and then we begin reforming society. Thus, knowledge becomes the means to a moral end. As to the social value of education, 'The Great Learning' states that the welfare of the family, the state, and the world, in that order, depend upon people being positively equipped both with knowledge and with moral commitment. The Motto of this University: "Sapientia et Virtus" carries precisely this message.

Once, when a disciple asked Confucius about the practice of virtue, the Master said, using an example: "A mechanic who wishes to do his work well must equip himself with the appropriate tools". Master Confucius used a practical example to answer what was a moral question, which illustrates his insight into the dynamic relationship between skill and virtue. The skills are tools for the attainment of virtue.

During my long years of serving True Light Middle School, I have tried to put into practice the ideal of placing equal emphasis upon academic and upon moral education, through the spirit of Christianity. I have been fortunate enough to have had the keen co-operation of colleagues. Although it is difficult to appraise the results, the school seems to have won a great deal of approval and confidence among the parents. I shall therefore briefly mention a few means by which the school tries to fulfil that ideal.

Firstly we steadfastly believe that without the support of the entire staff, no educational goal can be attained. A seminar for all members of staff is therefore held before the beginning of each school year. Together, they review the educational objectives of the school, so that the objectives will become clearer to them. With conviction in the objectives thus renewed or confirmed, they are then divided into groups on the basis of subjects and grades to make their plans to put into effect both the academic and the counseling programmes. The counseling programme is mainly concerned with the students' psychology and personal needs, with their relationships with others, with their concern for social betterment, and with their sense of service. This programme receives attention which is equal to the academic programme.

Second, we firmly hold that children should learn through practical experience. Thus, extra-curricular activities are regarded as an integral part of their learning processes, not just as activities added. Student organizations, such as the students' council, class clubs, and various societies sponsor a range of activities which cater for individual differences and creativity, as well as for group endeavours. Through these activities the pupils are taught the principles of co-operation and of decision taking through democratic process. They learn to plan, to organize, to put decision into effect, to solve problems and to evaluate their projects. The teachers serve as guides, always ready to help, remaining sensitive to the need for pupil initiative.

Third, in the midst of the depersonalization the vast population brings to human relationships, we try to inculcate into our pupils a sense of duty to, and an individual consideration for others, not only in the school community, but also in the community at large.

Our starting point is of course to establish friendly and helpful personal relationships in the classroom. It is common practice among our pupils to help those in need, be it academically, or personally or financially. Financial help is often offered anonymously, through the pooling of resources. The two biggest annual events, in terms of social service, involving every single member of the school, are a winter-clothing campaign at Christmas, and a Founder's Day bazaar held to raise a scholarship fund for needy pupils. Each year and average of twenty-two thousand pieces of used clothing is collected, distributed into two thousand parcels, and handed out to the needy in the squatters areas in the neighbourhood of the school and in outlying island districts, and to welfare organizations. The bazaar, which consists of games and food booths organized by the pupils themselves, is a good example of putting into practice cooperative planning, giving free expression to creativity, learning and good public relations, in the selling of tickets and the thousands of customers at the booths, and exercising responsibility in the making of transactions with caterers, as well as in accounting and auditing work. It is fair to say, that the whole show is run by the pupils themselves, under the guidance of the teachers. Each pupil is assigned his task, so that each has a chance to experience the joy of helping others; for the proceeds from the bazaar usually provide one in every ten of his classmates with financial assistance.

We also try to ensure that our pupils accept as a habit, as part of their equipment for life, the spirit of service to the larger community; besides the more common services, of school road safety patrols, the youth and junior cadets of the Hong Kong Red Cross, and flag sales for welfare organizations, our school has made special arrangements with the Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind so that they can offer their services to the blind people there. In this way, their attention is constantly drawn to the needs of the handicapped and of the aged. Warm and caring relationships are continually established, and our pupils move through a different dimension of the human condition. With interdependence as the key to survival of the world, we need to find the means of cultivating in them a sense of global concern too. One year, we contrived to send a substantial sum out of our pupils' Christmas offerings to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) for the relief of flood victims.

And finally, our reward system of True Light School is consistent with the ideal - with the aim of placing equal emphasis both on academic and moral education. This, we are endlessly told, is the age or "meritocracy". Unfortunately, however, merit is often defined narrowly and in terms of knowledge and skills. Do not those pupils who have become dedicated to the idea of service and who are keen to co-operate with others, who have integrity, and who are industrious deserved equal recognition? In True Light, an honour student must excel both in achievement and in character. A pupil who excels in service and citizenship is rewarded for these qualities, even is they have no higher than average academic record. Even the mediocre pupil who courageously and persistently tries their best is rewarded for their efforts. This kind of reward system offers proof to the pupils , that the school takes its ideals seriously.

Some of you present here will now begin to wonder, if the academic standards of True Light School suffer, when its pupils are spending so much time and energy in the pursuit of non-academic goals. Let me re-assure you; for the results of the Chinese Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination show that True Light has always been comparable to other middle schools of high standard in Hong Kong. Moreover, it could be that through learning from extra-curricular experiences, our pupils have found their education more relevant and meaningful, that they have achieved an awareness that school means not only the acquiring of knowledge, but also learning to be human.

I have shared with you some of my own thoughts on the educational ideal, and extracted from my own experience examples of how that ideal might be achieved.

A Hong Kong, plagued with economic recession, over-crowding and a rising crime rate, should present a new set of challenges to this University, and to its students and its graduates. I am glad to learn that a ten-year plan for the University is not being devised for physical and enrolment expansion to meet the needs of Hong Kong. It is my sincere hope that this University may not, under the weight of sheer size, relinquish any of its oriental cultural heritage, but under the wise leadership of its Chancellor and its Vice-Chancellor, will continue to cleave to the doctrine that the inculcation of moral values lies at the very core of the educational process, and that its graduates will continue to fulfil the role of leaders of our society, armed both with knowledge and moral commitment, with which to serve the people of Hong Kong.

May I wish you all success in finding the true meaning of life.

今天承邀向各位嘉賓致詞,實感榮幸。首先我要代表莫綺芬夫人(或莫夫人綺芬女士),包玉剛先生,司徒惠先生和本人感謝香港大學今天頒授我們名譽學位。大家都知道莫夫人、包先生、司徒先生三位先進都是社會知名之士,對社會貢獻尤多,實堪當這榮譽。唯有本人則受之有愧。如果我在教育方面稍有成就,全賴教育前輩的指導及同事們努力合作所致,絕非個人的功勞。先父恰巧畢業于香港大學前身的香港西醫書院,今日本人亦幸為香港大學一員,實感無限欣慰。

大學教授以發揚文化,造就專才及培育領袖為目標,港大在63年來已收這目標的良果,對本港文化、經濟、教育等各方面均有重大的貢獻。目前政府各部門領導職位,大部份亦由港大畢業生充任,故對本港前途,有莫大影響。

當今知識暴增科技劇進時代,不幸人類精神生活及社會秩序郤成相反的衰落,貪污、吸毒、搶刼、兇殺,都是每日耳聞目覩的事。關心社會的人士均覺有急需改善的必要,對於飽享教育權利的知識界領袖,深深寄以改善社會重責的期望。

但可惜近代的教育過於著重專門學識與技能,對於確立人生目標價值之研討與品德的陶治甚為忽略。中小學時期既沒有奠下德育之基礎,到了大學,許多青年只求掌握學識與技能,以期爭取高薪的職位,個人得以享受物質生活的舒適,對於社會的嚴重問題,人民大眾的困苦,缺乏體會的能力,更欠服務的精神,這並非本港單獨的現象,而是世界共同的趨勢。

但近年來,在工業發達的國家,有一部份醒覺的青年已開始懷疑及拒絕他們的物質功利文化,聞說大學選科中以研討道德、哲學及各類宗教的科目為最盛,可見青年們在混亂的社會中,急切要找尋人生的真價值。

自從水門案件之後,美國教育界更群起發表「德育」在美國教育制度中應有的地位,他們提問:「中小學及個別教師對促進兒童德行之責任?」,「何為價值?」,「何為道德之價值?」,「學校如何能協助青年對道德難題作決擇?」。這些問題最近已成為在滋長中的運動,發生于美國尤其難得。因美國教育迷于科技,久已將德育埋葬,認為是落伍或玄妙空談。今日對道德淪亡的危機竟有如利浦門(Lipoman)教授等創設「促進兒童哲學思想研習所」,研究訓導兒童品德之難題,這是一個可喜的趨勢。本人之所以提出美國為例,乃因其科技的成功,物質文明發達,得世人及正在工業化的國家無限景仰,盲目追隨,深信它已找到人生幸福的鎖鑰。今日先覺的美國人已覺俉他們過度偏重物質享受的錯誤。希望能在懸崖上勒馬,轉向道義方面去尋找能駕馭科技的方法。這種覺悟,值得我們香港人士作深刻的警愓和思考。

至於中國的教育理想是導源於儒家。道德與學術並重之說早已見於經書。四書中之《大學》開宗明義第一篇即已提出:「大學之道在明明德,在新民,在止於至善。」換句話來說,為學的目標是學習道德,推已及人,達到完善的境域。《大學》跟著分析學習的程序說:「欲正其心者先誠其意,欲誠其意者先致其知,致知在格物。」至於教育對社會組織的功用則云是在「齊家,治國,平天下。」因此古書很清楚的指出,教育的程序與目標是由研究事物,推到修養品德,而進至改善社會。品學並重,這正符合本校校訓「明德,格物」的宗旨。

在論語又有載:「子貢問為仁,子曰:工欲善其事必先利其器」。值得我們注意的是子貢的所問,是有關道德的問題,而孔子郤用利器之喻來開導他,可見孔子深明技能與德行的密切關係。技能是工具,用以達德行的目標。

本人前在真光中學曾試把這品學並重的理想,藉著基督精神施諸實行。幸得教職員努力合作,不敢說有多大成就,但頗得家長的信任。現將所試施行的略舉幾項,請列位社會賢達指教。

第一,本人相信欲得教育成果,必靠全體教職員的支持。故每學年之始,必先舉行數天全體教職員大會。首先溫習真光教育目標,使各人對它更清淅明瞭,加強信念。然後分部,分科,分級共同商討訂定全年教學和輔導的目標及切實施行的計劃。輔導工作範圍包括個別學生心理及成長中的需要,與人相處之道,關懷社會問題,及培養服務精神等等。輔導與教學受同等的重視。

第二,我們深信兒童必需透過經驗來學習。因此把課外活動視為輔助性的課程。並非額外而是必需的。學生會,級社,興趣組等組織盡量進行多種活動,以期培養個別特長,鼓勵創作力,與及發揚群體的教育。學生由此學習合作,民主的領導及服務多類的原則。更有許多機會學習計劃、組織、執行、解決難題與及客觀的檢討他們的活動。教職員從旁指導,盡可能放手讓學生培養自動自發的能力。

第三,在這人情冷薄的世代,我們試培養學生關懷及同情別人。非但對同學該有責任感,並試推及社會上不幸的人,始點是在班級內建立友愛互助的關係,同學之間在學業,個人問題及經濟方面,經常有共同研究,互相勸誡,更有匿名解囊相助的實際行動。

每年最盛大動員全校的兩項服務活動便是聖誕的寒衣運動及校慶的籌募助學金遊藝會。平均每年全體可收集約二萬二千件衣物足夠分為二千包分送鄰居木屋區及離島之需要者或各慈善機關。校慶等籌募助學金遊藝會是由各級舉辦食物及遊藝檔,由學生主動設計,準備,佈置,與食物商接洽,售劵,招待,維持當日秩序及結帳。每生都輪派到工作,得一嘗助人為快樂之本的真義,因所得的助學金可資助大約百份之十同學的部份學費。

至於對外社會服務工作,除了比較普通的交通安全隊,紅十字會青少年團,及為慈善機關售旗等之外,特與心光盲女院聯絡,作為服務的對象,使學生對傷殘、年老的人,發生同情、體貼的心,瞭解人間痛苦的另一角度。某年當東巴基斯坦遭受水災,學生由聖誕獻金中撥款賑災。在此全球息息相依相關的世代,我們認為學生該學習全球的國際觀念,把責任及關懷推廣。

最後為加強品學並重的信念,真光的獎勵辦法也因而需切合宗旨。今世著重獎勵人才,但可惜「才」的定義郤狹窄的定為智能的才幹。至於那些肯犠牲服務,與人合作,努力學習待人接物,實踐誠實,勤勉等美德的人該否也受讚賞呢?真光的優異生必需在品格及學業雙方均優異,方能得優異獎。如某生學業祇及格,但品德、服務過人,也能受品格優良獎。甚至學業極平庸,而能努力不懈,日求進步的學生亦可得進步獎。這樣的獎勵法是証明給學生知道,校方是誠意的並重品學。

在座嘉賓中可能有人懷疑一所學校費了這麼多人力時間在正規課程之外的學習,對學業程度是否會有不良的影響?根據中文中學會考成績,真光歷年來均不亞於本港程度最優良的中文中學,可能學生在活動經驗所得的實際知識能對書本的知識起啟發作用增添它的意義,並且使學生悟及求學非只讀書而是學做人。

以上所提真光的一切,不過是本人的理想與幾個試驗的例子。效果如何,要由畢業校友及社會賢達作評判。

在結束這講話之前,讓我們觀察一下香港的社會。今日香港正在不景,地狹人稠,罪惡日增之際,這種情況給香港大學及其畢業生一個空前的挑戰。很高興聽得香港大學有十年擴展的計劃,準備增設院系,擴大收容學生額位以適應香港之需,深信校方在監督與校長領導之下必會秉承我們東方民族良好的傳統,以德育為教育的核心,品學並重,質量齊施,則港大同學更能勝任領袖的責任,為本港人民造福。

謹祝各位在找尋人生真義上成功!

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